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El fracaso, un trampolín para tu próximo éxito profesional

Expansión, ARANCHA BUSTILLO, MADRID, @Zazurri

Un despido; un proyecto que has encabezado y termina en un fiasco; o un negocio que no funciona. Fallar es habitual e, incluso, una nueva manera de tomar impulso. Hay que aprender a gestionarlo.

“No he fracasado. He encontrado 10.000 soluciones que no funcionan”. Este aparente optimismo que manifiesta Thomas A. Edison, empresario y prolífico inventor estadounidense, en esta cita nos choca a muchos que hemos convivido con una cultura en la que se penaliza el fallo en el terreno laboral. Un estigma social que, hasta que no estalló la crisis económica y se llevó por delante todo el sistema de trabajo con el que habíamos crecido como profesionales, podía acabar con nuestra autoestima y ponernos las cosas muy difíciles para volver al ruedo laboral.

Gestionar un fracaso en este terreno, sea de la naturaleza que sea -desde un despido hasta un proyecto fallido o una idea de negocio que no cuaja-, es complicado. Pero, si se administran bien los pasos y se aprende del error, un fallo puede servir para dar un nuevo impulso a la carrera profesional.

Antes de aprender a gestionar el error hay que definir bien qué es. Según Elena Méndez, profesora de recursos humanos de IE Business School, “un fracaso es obtener un resultado que no responde a las expectativas marcadas. Y sobre todo, un fracaso es aquello que no te permite avanzar y te deja atascado”. Para evitar que esto pase, y partiendo de la base de que todo el mundo falla, hay que poner en práctica las claves que convierten un error en una nueva oportunidad. La resiliencia, el mejor de tus aliados.

Evolución.

Dice Begoña Puente, profesora de ESADE Business School, que “desde que convivimos con la crisis la sociedad se ha vuelto más permeable. Ahora se es más indulgente con las dificultades empresariales y económicas, ya que los valores comienzan a adaptarse un poco a esta nueva realidad. Evolucionamos en la idea de poner el foco de atención en cada uno de nosotros, como centro de nuestro desarrollo profesional, frente a la sociedad, las empresas y los puestos de trabajo”. Una idea que no comparte con Genoveva Vera, coach y experta en liderazgo, quien considera que la delicada situación económica “ha aumentado el carácter prudente de las empresas y de los empleados a la hora de correr riesgos. El miedo a perder posición en el mercado, a no vender lo suficiente o a perder el puesto de trabajo hizo que se paralizaran proyectos o que no se invirtiera en innovación”.

El cambio.

Cierto es que a nadie le gusta fracasar, ni siquiera para aprender a no repetir ese error. Menos aún en una cultura en la que el fallo ha estado muy mal visto. Y hablo en pasado porque, según la mayoría de expertos consultados, hemos tomado conciencia de lo que realmente significa fracasar. Sobre todo gracias al peso, cada vez mayor, del mundo emprendedor en el mercado de trabajo. Un universo nada ajeno al error, en el que fallar es lo habitual. “Hay más tolerancia en el mundo start up que en el laboral. El inversor sabe que un emprendedor puede errar”, recuerda Daniel Soriano, director del Centro Internacional de Gestión Emprendedora de IE Business School.

José María Quintanar, presidente de IusTime, cree que los emprendedores “se diferencian por tener una actitud abierta, por trabajar con curiosidad, por no vetar las dudas de los socios en el camino y premiar al equipo por cada paso adelante. Para ellos el fracaso es sólo un paso atrás, para tomar impulso y avanzar cinco más”. Una forma de pensar que, poco a poco, va calando en el resto de la sociedad.

Gestionar.

Elena Méndez reconoce que en España hay mucho miedo a perder el puesto de trabajo y, por tanto, más barreras para reconocer el fallo. Además, en las organizaciones jerárquicas (la mayoría) se penalizan los fracasos, amén de que el feedback y las conversaciones sobre errores suelen ser agresivos. Sin embargo, entiende que fallar es inevitable y que lo importante es aprender a gestionar bien el error. Identifica, por tanto, una serie de pasos que dar para que un fallo se traduzca, a la larga, en un éxito: “Reconocer y gestionar las emociones. La gente entra en shock cuando algo no ha ido bien, de ahí la importancia de tomar conciencia desde el punto de vista emocional del momento en el que estamos; aceptar y aprender. No puedes admitir frases del tipo ‘ha sido mala suerte’;no dejar que un fracaso te rompa. Revísalo con otros ojos y saca lo positivo de la situación; aprende de otros que ya lo han pasado y han sobrevivido;elabora un discurso. Hay que saber contar qué es lo que ha pasado y sentirte cómodo en el relato. E, incluso, puedes preguntar a tus receptores si ha quedado algo en el tintero; cuidarse. No sólo debes atender la parte emocional, también la física. Hay que dormir bien, comer bien y hacer ejercicio; y, por último, aprender a fallar bien, es decir, a reconocer antes el error e identificar lo mejor de ese fallo”.

El despido.

Otro tipo de fracaso es el que sientes cuando te despiden. Un salto al vacío en estos momentos en los que el mercado laboral apenas ofrece alternativa. Pero, aunque en un primer momento lo parezca, que te echen de una empresa no es el final. Puede ser un nuevo comienzo. José María Quintanar aconseja “analizar objetivamente el motivo y tomar una decisión en función a los datos”. Una vez realizadas las gestiones iniciales, “hay que marcarse una meta hacia otro proyecto profesional. Y, como todo proceso de búsqueda de empleo, ésto pasa por trabajar la marca persona, definir y adecuar el mercado laboral al que dirigirse. Y hacer”, indica Puente. Porque un fracaso puede ser una oportunidad.

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